Category Archives: News

Agate Milling Jars: Your Essential Partner in Precision Grinding

In the realm of scientific experimentation and industrial processes, precision and durability are paramount. This is where Agate Milling Jars excel, offering unparalleled performance in even the most demanding grinding and milling tasks. As a leading manufacturer and service provider of these specialized tools, we understand the importance of precision and quality in every step of your process. Today, we’ll delve into the world of Agate Milling Jars, exploring their unique properties, applications, and why they are the preferred choice for numerous high-value industries.

What Are Agate Milling Jars?
Agate Milling Jars are made from agate, a natural ore primarily composed of silica. This material boasts exceptional hardness, high resistance to shock, and a remarkable ability to withstand various solvents. These attributes make agate an ideal choice for creating milling jars that can withstand the rigorous demands of grinding and milling operations.

Our Agate Milling Jars come in various sizes, ranging from small lab-scale models to larger industrial-grade versions, ensuring compatibility with a wide range of equipment and processes. Whether you’re working with powders, minerals, or other materials, these jars provide a smooth and efficient grinding surface that ensures consistent results.

Unique Features and Benefits
1. Impurity-Free Construction:
Agate is a naturally occurring mineral, known for its purity and lack of contaminants. This translates to cleaner, more consistent results in your milling process.

2. Smooth Surface:
The smooth interior surface of Agate Milling Jars minimizes friction and wear, ensuring longer tool life and better end-product quality.

3. Strong Shock Resistance:
Agate’s high density and strength make these jars ideal for applications involving high-energy grinding, where resistance to impact is crucial.

4. Solvent Resistance:
The material’s chemical stability ensures that Agate Milling Jars can be used with a wide range of solvents and chemicals without degrading or altering the quality of your samples.

5. Versatility:
From lab-scale research to large-scale industrial production, Agate Milling Jars cater to a diverse set of applications, making them a versatile addition to any toolbox.

Agate Milling Jars

Agate Milling Jars find their way into numerous industries, including but not limited to:

Scientific Research: Researchers rely on Agate Milling Jars for precise, repeatable results in material analysis and powder characterization.
Pharmaceuticals: The purity and chemical stability of agate make these jars ideal for grinding and mixing active pharmaceutical ingredients.
Mining and Minerals: For processing minerals, ores, and other hard materials, Agate Milling Jars provide the durability and precision needed for efficient grinding.
Ceramics and Glass: The smooth surface and resistance to wear make them excellent for preparing raw materials for ceramic and glass production.
Cosmetics and Personal Care: Agate’s ability to withstand solvents makes it perfect for grinding pigments and other ingredients used in cosmetics and personal care products.
Agate Ball Mill Jars With Lids
Taking the versatility and performance of Agate Milling Jars to the next level, we offer Agate Ball Mill Jars With Lids. These jars are designed with secure lids to prevent spillage and contamination during operation, ensuring cleanliness and safety in your milling process. The lids also facilitate easy loading and unloading of materials, saving you time and effort.

Our Commitment to Quality
As a leading manufacturer and service provider of Agate Milling Jars, we understand the importance of quality control. Each jar undergoes rigorous testing to ensure it meets our high standards for durability, precision, and performance. Our team of experts is always available to assist you in selecting the right jar for your specific application, ensuring you get the most out of your investment.

Agate Milling Jars are the ultimate choice for high-precision, high-durability grinding and milling tasks. Their unique properties, including purity, smoothness, shock resistance, and solvent stability, make them indispensable tools in numerous industries. As a trusted manufacturer and service provider, we’re committed to providing you with the highest quality Agate Milling Jars, backed by unparalleled customer support.

Ceramic Fasteners: The Ultimate Solution for Your High-Performance Needs

In the realm of advanced materials and engineering solutions, ceramic fasteners have emerged as a game-changer, particularly for industries that demand exceptional performance under extreme conditions. As a Ceramic Fasteners Manufacturing Service Provider, we understand the intricacies of this innovative technology and its immense potential in connecting ceramic components for high-temperature applications. This comprehensive guide aims to unravel the mysteries of Ceramic Fasteners, highlighting their unique features, benefits, and applications.

Ceramics, a material synonymous with tradition, history, and art, have undergone a remarkable transformation in recent years. From humble beginnings as household pottery to sophisticated high-tech materials, ceramics now play a pivotal role in industries such as aerospace, biotechnology, and electronics. Ceramic Fasteners, specifically designed to withstand high temperatures and extreme environments, are a testament to this evolution.

Understanding Ceramic Fasteners
Ceramic Fasteners are fasteners crafted from advanced ceramic materials, often fiber-reinforced, to provide unparalleled strength, durability, and heat resistance. They come in various forms, including screws, nuts, bolts, and washers, tailored to meet the unique demands of high-temperature applications. These fasteners are engineered to withstand temperatures ranging from several hundred to over a thousand degrees Celsius, making them ideal for use in space vehicles, jet engines, and other extreme environments.

Ceramic Fasteners

Why Choose Ceramic Fasteners?
High-Temperature Resistance: Ceramic Fasteners can withstand temperatures far exceeding those of traditional metal fasteners, ensuring reliable performance even in the harshest conditions.
Corrosion Resistance: Unlike metals, ceramics are inherently resistant to corrosion, eliminating the need for additional coatings or treatments.
Lightweight Strength: Ceramic materials offer exceptional strength-to-weight ratios, making Ceramic Fasteners an ideal choice for lightweight components in aerospace and automotive applications.
Electrical Insulation: Ceramics are excellent electrical insulators, making them suitable for applications where electrical conductivity is undesirable.
Longevity: With proper maintenance, Ceramic Fasteners can last significantly longer than their metal counterparts, reducing replacement costs and downtime.

Applications of Ceramic Fasteners
Aerospace: Ceramic Fasteners are crucial in spacecraft and re-entry vehicles, where they secure heat shields and other critical components under extreme heat and vibration.
Energy: In power plants and nuclear reactors, Ceramic Fasteners withstand high temperatures and radiation, ensuring the integrity of piping and other structures.
Automotive: High-performance engines and exhaust systems rely on Ceramic Fasteners to maintain structural integrity and reduce weight.
Chemical Processing: Corrosive environments in chemical plants necessitate the use of Ceramic Fasteners to prevent deterioration and maintain safe operations.

Ceramic Fasteners Manufacturing: A Process of Precision
As a Ceramic Fasteners Manufacturing Service Provider, we specialize in crafting these advanced fasteners through a meticulous process that combines cutting-edge technology with meticulous attention to detail. Our manufacturing process involves:

Material Selection: We carefully select high-quality ceramic materials, including fiber-reinforced ceramics, to ensure optimal performance.
Design and Engineering: Using CAD software, we design fasteners tailored to specific application requirements, ensuring precise fit and function.
Precision Manufacturing: Utilizing state-of-the-art machinery, we manufacture fasteners with tight tolerances and impeccable quality.
Quality Control: Rigorous testing and inspection protocols ensure that every Ceramic Fastener meets or exceeds industry standards and customer expectations.

The demand for Ceramic Fasteners continues to grow as industries push the boundaries of performance and efficiency. As a leading Ceramic Fasteners Manufacturing Service Provider, we are committed to staying at the forefront of this exciting field, offering innovative solutions that meet the evolving needs of our customers.

95% Alumina Ceramic Balls: Unleashing the Ultimate Precision Grinding Tool

In the vast realm of advanced materials, Alumina Ceramic Grinding Balls stand out as a game-changer for numerous industries. These high-performance spheres, particularly the 95% Alumina Ceramic Grinding Balls, embody the perfect blend of durability, efficiency, and versatility. Today, we delve into the world of these remarkable ceramic balls, exploring their unparalleled features, diverse applications, and technical specifications that make them a staple in modern manufacturing.

The Unparalleled Features of 95% Alumina Ceramic Grinding Balls
Excellent Abrasion Resistance
At the heart of their durability lies the exceptional abrasion resistance of 95% Alumina Ceramic Grinding Balls. This attribute ensures that even under intense grinding conditions, the balls maintain their shape and size, minimizing wear and maximizing their lifespan. This translates into cost savings and reduced downtime for manufacturers.

Outstanding Corrosion Resistance
Another defining feature is their outstanding corrosion resistance. Whether exposed to harsh chemicals or acidic environments, these ceramic balls remain unscathed, preserving their integrity and ensuring consistent performance. This characteristic makes them ideal for applications in the chemical and sanitary ware sectors, where exposure to aggressive media is commonplace.

Energy Saving of Grinding and Dispersion
Efficiency is key in modern manufacturing, and 95% Alumina Ceramic Grinding Balls deliver just that. Their high hardness and density enable faster grinding rates with less energy consumption, significantly reducing operational costs. These balls not only increase productivity but also contribute to a greener footprint by minimizing energy waste.

95% Alumina Ceramic Grinding Balls

Versatile Applications of 95% Alumina Ceramic Grinding Balls
Engineering Ceramics
Within the engineering ceramics industry, 95% Alumina Ceramic Grinding Balls are indispensable for precision grinding and polishing of advanced ceramic components. Their ability to withstand extreme conditions and maintain accuracy makes them the go-to choice for achieving impeccable surface finishes.

Ceramics Capacitor
The production of ceramic capacitors also benefits from these ceramic balls. They are employed in the grinding and mixing processes, ensuring consistent particle size distribution and high-quality end products. Their corrosion resistance is particularly advantageous in handling delicate materials used in capacitor manufacturing.

Sanitary Ware
In the sanitary ware sector, 95% Alumina Ceramic Grinding Balls are used for fine grinding and polishing of ceramic fixtures, such as toilets, sinks, and tiles. Their ability to maintain hygiene standards and resist contamination makes them a preferred choice for this industry.

The chemical industry relies heavily on Alumina Ceramic Grinding Balls for processing a wide range of materials, including pigments, dyes, and other chemicals. Their corrosion resistance and durability ensure safe and efficient handling of even the most aggressive chemicals, minimizing equipment damage and maintaining product purity.

95% Alumina Ceramic Grinding Balls are a testament to the power of advanced materials in modern manufacturing.

Grinding Solutions for the Ceramic Industry

In the ceramic industry, achieving a fine powder from granular feed material is crucial for various applications. When starting with ceramic particles of approximately 3mm in size and aiming to achieve a micron powder, how to make it? According to our more than 10 years experiences of exploration of materials in different fields, there are 2 cases for reference:

Case 1: Achieving 200 Mesh (75 µm) Powder
For transforming 3mm ceramic material into a 200 mesh (75 µm) powder, we recommend the following dry grinding method:

Product: Alumina milling jars and lids with Alumina Ceramic Grinding Balls.
Advantages: This method offers high cost-efficiency and can produce the desired powder size within 3-5 minutes.
Disadvantages: The main shortcoming is the higher wear rate of the alumina (corundum) jars compared to other materials. For applications requiring high purity, alternative solutions should be considered.

alumina milling jars+alumina ball

Case 2: Achieving 1000 Mesh (13 µm) Powder
For obtaining a finer powder of 1000 mesh (13 µm) from 3mm ceramic material, consider the following dry grinding solution:

Product: Zirconia milling jars (including the lids) with Zirconia Ceramic Grinding Balls.
Advantages: Although more expensive than corundum, zirconia offers superior quality in terms of durability and reduced contamination.
Note: During the initial stages of grinding, a higher crushing speed is required to handle the 3mm feed size effectively.

zirconia milling jars+zirconia ball

The outlined solutions provide a reference for grinding ceramic materials from 3mm particles to ultrafine powders. Each case and experiment may vary, requiring tailored approaches to meet specific requirements and achieve optimal results.
For further assistance in selecting the best grinding solution for your specific needs, please contact our team of experts who can provide detailed guidance and support at

Alumina Crucibles: Why They Are the Preferred Choice for Precise Lab Work

In the realm of scientific experimentation and industrial processes, Alumina Crucibles are a crucial piece of labware. Their unique properties make them a standout choice for a wide range of applications. Whether you’re a researcher seeking precise results or an industrialist looking for reliable equipment, Alumina Crucibles are a must-have.

The Fundamentals of Alumina Crucibles:

At the heart of Alumina Crucibles lies their composition: alumina (Al2O3), a ceramic material renowned for its high thermal conductivity, excellent corrosion resistance, and chemical stability. These properties make Alumina Crucibles ideal for applications that require extreme temperatures or exposure to harsh chemicals.

Uses of Alumina Crucibles in Labs:

Alumina Crucibles are a staple in many laboratories, where they are used for various purposes. They’re commonly used in melting and refining metals, as well as for holding and containing samples during chemical reactions and analyses. Their durability and ability to withstand high temperatures make them a reliable choice for these demanding applications.

The Advantages of Customized Alumina Crucibles:

While standard Alumina Crucibles offer a range of benefits, customized versions can provide even greater flexibility and performance. Customized Alumina Crucibles can be tailored to specific experimental needs, ensuring that they fit perfectly into your laboratory workflow. Whether you need a crucible with a unique shape, size, or material composition, customization can ensure that you get the perfect tool for your job.

Alumina Crucibles

Some of the advantages of customized Alumina Crucibles include:

Enhanced performance tailored to your specific application.
Improved fit and compatibility with your existing lab equipment.
Cost savings by eliminating the need for unnecessary features or modifications.
How to Choose the Right Customized Alumina Crucibles:

When selecting customized Alumina Crucibles for your laboratory, it’s essential to consider a few key factors. Determine the specific requirements of your application, including the temperatures, chemicals, and samples you’ll be working with. This will help you choose the right material composition and crucible design. If you need further assistance, please do not hesitate to contact us, and we will have a dedicated team member assist you with customization.

Consider the size and shape of the crucible you need. Customized Alumina Crucibles can be manufactured in a variety of sizes and shapes, so it’s important to select one that will fit into your experimental setup and allow for easy handling.

Look for a manufacturer or supplier that offers quality products and reliable customer service. A reputable supplier can provide you with the expertise and support you need to ensure that your customized Alumina Crucibles meet your expectations and perform as intended.

Alumina Crucibles are an essential piece of labware that offers numerous benefits for scientific experimentation and industrial processes. Their unique properties and versatility make them a popular choice among researchers and industrialists alike. By investing in customized Alumina Crucibles, you can ensure that you have the perfect tool for your specific needs, enabling you to achieve more accurate and reliable results in your work.

Agate Milling Jar For High Value Industry

Agate material belongs to the natural ore category, which is naturally generated and mainly composed of silica. The agate milling jars are free of impurities, have a smooth appearance, strong shock resistance, and are resistant to various solvents (such as acetone and alcohol). Rigorous experimental testing has affirmed its ability to endure high-speed vibration without succumbing to cracks or deformities.

The agate ball milling cans are widely used in industries such as precious metals, electronic ceramics, magnetic materials, and pigment coatings. The agate ball milling jar finds its stronghold in research institutions like the Environmental Testing Research Institute. Renowned for its near-zero pollution footprint and commendable heat dissipation capabilities, agate ensures materials remain untainted and preserves their integrity by facilitating grinding processes at ambient temperatures.

The agate ball milling jars are a complete structure with thick tank walls and a dedicated tank opening fixture. Its user-friendly design guarantees easy-to-open and tightly sealed and enduring durability. During use, there will be no adverse phenomena such as gap leakage or dead corners in material storage, and it can process ultra-fine materials with narrow fineness distribution in a short period.

However, it”s imperative to note that agate”s limited thermal conductivity renders it unsuitable for operations at elevated temperatures. Consequently, post-cleaning, precautions must be taken to avoid subjecting the agate milling jar to ovens or similar heating methods for drying purposes.

Exploring The Difference Between Horizontal And Planetary Ball Mills

Small ball mills exhibit compact dimensions, high operational efficiency, and ease of maintenance, rendering them indispensable equipment for powder grinding, mixing, and dispersion in laboratory and small batch production settings following material crushing. Their versatile nature enables the processing of materials spanning the spectrum from soft to hard, brittle to tough. Moreover, these mills can be tailored to various capacities, accommodating grinding tasks ranging from a few grams to several tons per operation. Below, we delve into the distinctive features of horizontal and planetary ball mills to facilitate informed decision-making.

Horizontal Ball Mill:

The horizontal ball mill machine, characterized by a drum-type configuration, revolves around its axis, housing grinding balls within the cylinder. As the grinding cylinder rotates, it manifests three operational states: descending at low velocity, optimal throwing velocity, and excessive speed leading to tight confinement. During descent, material pulverization primarily stems from grinding effects; in the throwing phase, impact effects dominate; and in the tightened state, material-grinding interactions diminish, compromising crushing efficacy. The prevailing velocity is often termed the critical speed.

Planetary Ball Mill:

A planetary ball mill machine, distinguished by its rotation and revolution mechanism, employs controllable angular velocities to accommodate materials of varying hardness. Its operation involves opposing self-rotation and common rotation speeds, with ball milling canisters evenly distributed across a large disk. The planetary action augments the weight of both the grinding ball and material, intensifying interaction forces and enhancing grinding efficacy. This heightened interaction promotes effective grinding, even during descent, generating ample stress for optimal grinding outcomes. Furthermore, grinding efficacy hinges on the sliding velocity during contact between grinding balls and material. While drum-type ball mills are constrained by critical speed limitations, planetary ball mills enable the expulsion or dislodgment of material and balls at elevated rotational speeds due to increased masses. Consequently, this configuration fosters favorable conditions for ultrafine grinding. Notably, the self-rotation and common rotation speeds of planetary ball mills can be tailored to suit specific requirements, offering a customized approach to milling operations.

If you have request of regular zirconia or alumina ceramic ball mill jar and lid set, you can send your inquiry detail for us at

Alumina Or Zirconia Ceramic Milling Jars Cleaning solution

The ball mill machine stands as one of the most advanced powder grinding apparatuses currently available, widely employed across industries such as electronics, building materials, ceramics, chemicals, light industry, medicine, beauty, and environmental protection. Its innovative design, compact footprint, and multifunctional capabilities render it indispensable in various departments. However, achieving fine grinding outcomes relies significantly on the operational integrity of Milling Jars. Over time, users may encounter a buildup of materials on the surfaces of the zirconia ceramic ball mill jars tank, presenting a persistent challenge. Presented below are several professional cleaning methods to address this issue effectively.

  • Water Washing:

The simplest and gentlest method involves rinsing with water and incorporating a mild detergent, ensuring thorough cleaning without compromising the integrity of the grinding balls or the tank body.

  • Detergent Washing:

For substances resistant to water-based cleaning, such as oils and solvents, a combination of laundry detergent or soapy water with the grinding balls and water can be rotated within the ball mill, effectively dislodging stubborn residues without causing damage.

  • Ultrasonic or Plasma Cleaning Machine:

Employing mechanical means, ultrasonic or plasma cleaning proves effective against oils, viscous substances, and other tenacious residues, utilizing their powerful capabilities to disintegrate attachments and achieve optimal cleanliness.

  • Acidic Washing with Sulfuric or Nitric Acid:

In instances where particularly stubborn residues persist, a judicious application of dilute acids, such as sulfuric or nitric acid, can be employed. This method, albeit aggressive, is reserved for specific circumstances and necessitates careful handling to ensure safety and equipment integrity.

  • Solvent-Based Cleaning:

Tailored to materials processed in a wet ground state, solvent-based cleaning aligns with the principle of using compatible solvents for effective residue removal, thereby restoring the milling environment to its original state.

Primarily applicable in mechanical alloying studies, where alloy layers may form on tank walls and grinding balls, this method employs a combination of construction sand, quartz sand, or small corundum balls with water for comprehensive cleaning. This approach is particularly effective in addressing challenging residues.

Mastering these six cleaning methods for Alumina ceramic or zirconia ceramic Mill Jars ensures optimal equipment maintenance and longevity. Regular cleaning following each grinding session is imperative to preserve the operational efficiency of the ball mill and enhance its service life.

If you have any questions or inquiry about ceramic ball milling jars,welcome to contact us by email and we will reply you soon.

Precautions For Using Alumina Crucibles

To improve the service life of alumina crucibles and reduce the losses caused by improper use of alumina crucibles, the following suggestions are proposed for user reference:

Small ball mills exhibit compact dimensions, high operational efficiency, and ease of maintenance, rendering them indispensable equipment for powder grinding, mixing, and dispersion in laboratory and small batch production settings following material crushing. Their versatile nature enables the processing of materials spanning the spectrum from soft to hard, brittle to tough. Moreover, these mills can be tailored to various capacities, accommodating grinding tasks ranging from a few grams to several tons per operation. Below, we delve into the distinctive features of horizontal and planetary ball mills to facilitate informed decision-making.

1. The maximum operating temperature of the alumina crucibles should not exceed 1750℃, and the long-term operating temperature should be below 1700℃. In order to improve the service life, it is recommended raising the temperature at a rate of less than 3°C per minute. If the alumina crucible size is large and there is a lot of material to be loaded, it can be insulated for 30 minutes at the 300°C and 600°C nodes to achieve uniform heating; Efforts should be made to avoid sudden temperature rise and uneven heating, especially to avoid directly inserting the alumina crucible into the high-temperature furnace. If the process allows for cooling, natural will slow cooling with the kiln should be used, and air cooling or indirect cooling with cooling water should be avoided as much as possible.

2. To reduce the cracking of alumina crucibles local sudden cooling and heating should be avoided, especially for hot alumina crucibles, which should not be directly placed on refractory bricks or refractory fiber blankets at room temperature, otherwise they are prone to cracking. Try to avoid uneven heating caused by open flames and cracking.

3. Alumina crucibles are brittle and hard materials. The service life of Alumina crucibles varies depending on different usage conditions and process methods. They are greatly affected by factors such as usage temperature, temperature rise and fall rate, atmosphere, vocalization of wintered materials, and ambient temperature. We hope that the manufacturer can combine their own process characteristics to summarize a set of operating standards that are most suitable for the usage conditions. The above is for reference only.

Alumina ceramics: the “quality gatekeeper” of wafer polishing

In recent years, silicon carbide (SiC) with high breakdown electric field and high thermal conductivity has been increasingly used as a material for electric vehicle inverters. As the voltage of electric vehicle batteries increases from 400V to 800V, the demand for faster charging speed and higher power density also increases. However, the strong market demand for electric vehicles has not improved the production efficiency of SiC substrates manufactured using physical vapor transfer (PVT) methods.

CMP and CMP post cleaning processes play a crucial role in reducing surface roughness, scratches, and contamination of SiC wafers. At the same time, CMP combines the advantages of chemical and mechanical grinding, and can achieve surface roughness at the nanoscale to atomic level. If global planarization at the nanoscale cannot be achieved during wafer manufacturing, key processes such as photolithography, etching, thin film, and doping cannot be repeated, and process nodes cannot be reduced to advanced fields at the nanoscale. The CMP equipment is mainly divided into two parts, namely the polishing part and the cleaning part. The polishing part consists of four parts, namely three polishing turntables and a disc loading and unloading module. The cleaning section is responsible for cleaning and drying the wafers, achieving the “dry in and dry out” of the wafers. In the entire polishing equipment, alumina ceramics are ubiquitous.

1. Alumina Wafer Polishing Disc

At present, using ceramic grinding discs to grind semiconductor wafers is the most advanced grinding method. The double-sided grinding process is used to grind the cut wafers, and the quality of the grinding discs is improved by improving the grinding process (disc material, grinding fluid, grinding pressure, and grinding speed, etc.); Especially when using ceramic discs instead of cast iron discs, it avoids causing scratches or pollution to the main surface of the wafer during grinding, reduces the introduction of metal ions, reduces the subsequent processing volume of the wafer, shortens the subsequent process (corrosion) time, improves production efficiency, and reduces the loss of wafer processing, greatly improving the utilization rate of the wafer.

Alumina ceramics are usually used to prepare wafer polishing discs, which require high purity, high chemical durability, and good control of surface shape and roughness.

2. Alumina Ceramic Mechanical Handling Arm

In CMP equipment, the wafer is first picked up from the mechanical wall of the wafer box, accurately positioned and aligned onto the platform below the polishing head. The polishing head usually has a vacuum adsorption function. When the wafer is placed below it, the polishing head moves downward and firmly adsorbs the wafer onto the polishing head through vacuum adsorption. Once the wafer is fixed, the polishing head moves the wafer onto the polishing pad for the polishing process.

To avoid contamination of the wafer, it is generally carried out in a vacuum environment. The handling arm needs to be resistant to high temperature, wear, and high hardness. Both alumina ceramics and silicon carbide ceramics have physical properties such as density, high hardness, and high wear resistance, as well as good heat resistance, excellent mechanical strength, good insulation and corrosion resistance in high temperature environments, It is an excellent material for making semiconductor equipment robotic arms.

3. Alumina Vacuum Suction Cup

The common materials for vacuum suction cups are Alumina and silicon carbide. The ceramic forms a hollow structure inside, which adsorbs and fixes the adsorbed material by applying negative pressure to the porous matrix. The preparation process of this integrated hollow structure ceramic has a high technical threshold and is mainly used as a fixed fixture for wafer thinning programs (grinding machines, polishing machines, CMP), various types of measuring devices, and fixed fixtures for inspection devices Fixed fixtures for processing thin film sheets and metal substrates, etc.



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